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What is ‘legal certainty in criminal law’?

No person may be held guilty for any act which did not constitute a criminal offence under law or any other regulation based on the law at the time when it was committed, nor shall a penalty be imposed which was not prescribed for this act .
The penalties shall be determined pursuant to a regulation in force at the time when the act was committed, save when subsequent regulation is more lenient for the perpetrator. Criminal offences and penalties shall be laid down by the law.
Everyone shall be presumed innocent for a criminal offence until convicted by a final judgement of the court.
No person may be prosecuted or sentenced for a criminal offence for which he has been acquitted or convicted by a final judgement, for which the charges have been rejected or criminal proceedings dismissed by final judgement, nor may court ruling be altered to the detriment of a person charged with criminal offence by extraordinary legal remedy. The same prohibitions shall be applicable to all other proceedings conducted for any other act punishable by law.
In special cases, reopening of proceedings shall be allowed in accordance with criminal legislation if evidence is presented about new facts which could have influenced significantly the outcome of proceedings had they been disclosed at the time of the trial, or if serious miscarriage of justice occurred in the previous proceedings which might have influenced its outcome.
Criminal prosecution or execution of punishment for a war crime, genocide, or crime against humanity shall not be subject to statute of limitation.

 
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